Jane Eyre

Jane Eyre is a first-person narrative of the title character. The novel goes through five distinct stages: Jane’s childhood at Gateshead, where she is emotionally and physically abused by her aunt and cousins; her education at Lowood School, where she acquires friends and role models; her time as the governess of Thornfield Hall, where she falls in love with her employer, Edward Rochester; her time with the Rivers family; and the finale with her reunion with, and marriage to, her beloved Rochester.

Chapter 1

Her story unfolds on a dreary November afternoon at Gateshead, the home of the wealthy Reed family. Jane Eyre sits in the drawing room reading Bewick’s History of British Birds. Jane’s aunt, Mrs. Reed, has forbidden her niece to play with her cousins Eliza, Georgiana, and the bullying John who bullies Jane for being a lowly orphan who is only permitted to live with the Reeds because of his mother’s charity. John pushes Jane to the end of her patience by throwing a book at her. Jane erupts, and the two cousins fight. Jane is held responsible for the scuffle and sends her to the “red-room” as punishment. 

Chapter 2

Servants Miss Abbott and Bessie Lee, escort Jane to the red-room, and Jane continuously resists. Once locked in the room, Jane begins to reflect on the events that have led her to such a state. She remembers her kind Uncle Reed bringing her to Gateshead after her parents’ death, and she recalls his dying command that his wife promise to raise Jane as one of her own. Jane is struck with the impression that her Uncle Reed’s ghost is in the room and has come to take revenge on his wife for breaking her promise. Jane eventually becomes terrified at the thought and screams in fear then eventually faints in exhaustion and fear as her cries are ignored. 

Chapter 3

When she comes around, Jane finds herself in her own bedroom, in the care of Mr. Lloyd, the family’s kind apothecary. Mr. Lloyd speaks with Jane about her life at Gateshead, and he suggests to Jane’s aunt that the girl be sent away to school, where she might find happiness. Jane is cautiously excited at the possibility of leaving Gateshead.

Chapter 4

Jane has been enduring even crueler treatment from her aunt and cousins while anxiously waiting for the arrangements to be made for her schooling. Jane is finally told she may attend the girls’ school Lowood, and she is introduced to Mr. Brocklehurst, the head of the school. Jane’s aunt warns him that Jane has been known for lying, a piece of information that Mr. Brocklehurst intends to publicize. Jane is so hurt by her aunt’s accusation that she cannot stop herself from defending herself to her aunt. Mrs. Reed, for once, admits defeat.



The Color Purple; feminist approach.

A feminist criticism is evident in this novel. The novel deals with the struggle, both in America and in Africa, of women to gain recognition as individuals who deserve fair and equal treatment.  In the very first letter, Celie tells of the abuse she suffers at the hands of the man she believes for a long time is her father. Her sexual encounters with her husband, Mr- are sordid and unloving; 

“Just do his business, get off, go to sleep”

Women are easily exploited, The bond of sisterhood is important both literally in the persons of Nettie and Celie. Some of the women in the novel have learned to fight for themselves. Sofia is powerful and physically strong. She is not subservient and has great strength of character as well. She can and does fight for what she wants, but of course her aggression results in her dreadful experience at the hands of the police after she dares to “talk back”.

Shug is the most liberated of women. Her career as a blues singer enables her to experience much more freedom than the other women whose lives are bound by home, work and child care. She is also much more sexually liberated than many other females, having numerous affairs and enjoying her sexuality with no restraints or false guilt.


The Color Purple character analysis.

The Color Purple is a book written by Alice Walker. It focuses on the story of Celie, who falls victim to the oppressively patriarchal society of the American south: raped and impregnated by her seeming father, then married off to the unloving Mister, to whom she becomes a household slave, cruelly separated from her adored sister, Nettie. 

Her father tells her she’d better not tell anyone that he’s raping her, at least not anyone aside from God. So Celie goes and confides in God about her struggles. Eventually, Celie leaves her abused life behind her. Although Mr.__ has been physically abusing Celie for years, when Celie comes across hidden letters from her sister Nettie, it gives Celie the strength to retaliate and stand up for herself against Mr_ and leaves him.

Nettie; Nettie is Celie’s younger sister, whom Celie saves from living the tragic life that she had to endure by sacrificing herself as Nettie is prettier than Celie, who has been deemed ugly, Mr.___ is originally interested in Nettie as a wife, but settles for Celie. After being physically attacked by Mr_ upon visiting Celie, Nettie is forced to leave and joins a missionary couple, with whom she travels to Africa as a missionary. Nettie faithfully writes to Celie for decades whilst being in Africa. and later on marries Samuel moves back to America with Celie’s children who were taken away from her at birth to be sold. 

Shug Avery; A blues singer who first appears as Mr.__’s mistress, Shug becomes Celie’s friend and eventually her lover. Shug helps Celie evolve into an independent and assertive woman by nurturing Celie physically, spiritually, and emotionally. Shug helps Celie discover the long lost letters from her sister Nettie that Mr.___ had been hiding for decades. In allowing Celie to view these letters, Shug is supplying her with even more hope and inspiration.

Mr__  Originally  seeks a relationship with Nettie but settles for Celie. Mr.___ mistreats Celie just as her father had although Celie does not understand that she doesn’t have to tolerate the abuse. When Shug Avery comes to town, Mr.___ falls for her and makes her his mistress. Through Shug’s manipulative influence, Mr__ begins to treat Celie better. In the end realizes that he has mistreated Celie and seeks a friendship with her.

Broken Dreams

Lucy Loughnane Lit Blog

“Broken Dreams” by WB Yeats explores the loveliness and perfection of Maud Gonne. The poem is written as one long stanza and is written in a conversational format, making it seem like a long monologue. The casual tone of the poem makes it pleasant to read and the use of enjambment shows how these are all of Yeats’ inner thoughts. Themes such as time, the afterlife, ageing and unrequited love crop up within the poem and the reader can get a sense of how strong Yeats’ feelings are for Maud Gonne, due to the use of different time periods (past & present), images and memories mentioned within.

“There is grey in your hair.”

In this opening sentence, Yeats is addressing Maud Gonne. He chooses to use this unflattering truth as his first line as he then has the ability to flatter later on in the poem. He refers to himself as…

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The Cold Heaven

Simon Joy

The Cold Heaven was written in 1912 and was published in 1914 by W.B Yeats, this poem being in the same collection as “September 1913”. The poem is written in a romantic style with a conversational format, like many other early Yeats poems, this is about love and the complications of love. The whole poem is a dramatic metaphor for the loss of love. There is a vision of despair over love lost or unfulfilled. The poem is based largely on the works of Blake who worked in the first phase of Romantic movement, Yeats, like Blake, was obsessed with seeing visions in the sky as well as the afterlife. The ambiguity of the poem with there being suggestions of the poem being about life/man/the failed relationship between him and Maud Gonne is a part of the charm. The poem has 1 stanza, possibly a reference to there being only…

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September 1913 notes.

In the past we’ve studied a poem by Yeats called ‘September 1913’. Yeats presents his anger through the first line by addressing the audience and drawing the reader to the main focus of the poem. He then explains the reason for his anger; the greed of shopkeepers/ Catholics in Ireland while many are suffering with low wages and struggling. They fumble with their “greasy till,” meaning that they have so much money coming in that they have to grease the drawer of the cash register. Adding “halfpence to the pence” means that they have all this money coming in, but none is going out to the people, who actually need it. They “have dried the marrow from the bone” meaning that the poor are suffering and dying while they live comfortably. “For men were born to pray and save” is a slam against the Catholic bourgeois; they pray and keep their money to themselves. The rich stay rich by not giving any of it away. The last two lines of this stanza function like a stop sign. They are meant to make you stop and think about what you have read. “Romantic Ireland’s dead and gone,” Yeats thinks that the selfishness of the Catholic bourgeois has made everything become meaningless. Ireland has become a poor nation concerned with money, and when money comes into the equation romance is lost; where there is greed there can not be romance.

Yeats follows onto the second stanza by praising heroes and claiming that “they were of a different kind” before claiming that they were “the names that stilled your childish play”, giving the impression that the names of these people were taught in school. Yeats shows revolutionaries were willing to stand up for Ireland’s best interest. They were not afraid of the repercussions of their actions. They made people grow up and acknowledge what was going on. They spread their ideas everywhere like the wind, but they also died like the wind. “They have gone about the world like wind.” These people, who fought for Ireland, sacrificed themselves so that Ireland could be a great nation.

In the last stanza Yeats begins to reflect on his feelings. Yeats suggests that the heroes who have given their lives to Ireland would be disgusted with the greed of people and the lack of morale. It shows people don’t value what the heroes of the past done for Ireland while also reminding people to remember their legacy in their aims to make Ireland better, which people should follow.

The Color Purple

To infinity and beyond



‘The Color Purple’ by Alice Walker is set in 1910-1940. There are no dates mentioned in the ‘The Color Purple’ with little sense of the time passing, with few mentions as to the characters ages.  In the opening chapters of ‘The Color Purple’ the reader is introduced to the character of Celie. The first thing we learn about Celie is the horrific abuse she goes through at the age of 14 upwards. This is done to her by her father (we later find out that he is infact, her stepfather), Fonso as his wife, Celies mother is fatally ill. The first sentence in the book is said by Fonso to Celie “You better tell nobody but God, it’d kill your mammy”.  We find out that Celie has two children by Fonso, one she shares her suspicion of Fonso killing the baby, and the second he gave away. Whilst…

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